The virus structure is made in a way that allows it to replicate itself, thus creating numerous viruses. 35) Disruption of the normal microbiota can result in infections caused by which of the following microbes? C) An influenza virus gains new sequences of DNA from another virus, such as a herpesvirus; this enables it to be transmitted to a human host. 6) The topical drug ________ inhibits protein synthesis in Gram positive bacteria by preventing loading of isoleucine onto tRNA. 21) Which of the following steps in the folic acid synthesis pathway is specifically inhibited by sulfonamides? 1) Who proposed the concept of chemotherapy, that compounds might selectively kill pathogens without harming people? 37) How does resistance to drugs spread in bacterial populations? Zyrtec (antihistamine) blocks effects of histamine. 11) The drug metronidazole is effective on both bacteria and some protozoa. anti-viral: amantadine ( inhibits viral uncoating) What is metabolism and how does it affect organisms? Given descriptions and illustrations students will identify and describe the methods of viral reproduction. GRL0617 inhibits papain-like protease/deubiquitinase with an IC 50, and a K i of 0.6 μM, 0.49 μM, respectively. -symmetry is determined by capsomer arrangement, -all human viruses that have a helical nucleocapsid are enveloped, function of viral capsid proteins & envelope proteins. Viral protein translation and PRRSV production were inhibited by ClO 2 treatment. Penetration - virus … What type of resistance does this represent? 30) The therapeutic range of an antimicrobial is the. 19) Which of the following antifungals works by binding to ergosterol in membranes? They are reproduced only within a host cell. IL-9 Inhibits Viral Replication in Coxsackievirus B3-Induced Myocarditis Front Immunol. 12) Which of the following groups of drugs can become incorporated into the bones and teeth of a fetus? Different Hosts and Their Viruses. -benefit of capsomers, reduce need for genetic information, reduce enzyme or energy required. 7) Which of the following is NOT a target of drugs that inhibit protein synthesis? 34) Infection of the ________ would be the hardest to treat with antimicrobial drugs. The rocaglate CR-31-B (−) inhibits SARS-CoV-2 replication at non-cytotoxic, low nanomolar concentrations in vitro and ex vivo. Virus classification by genome structure and core: The type of genetic material (DNA or RNA) and its structure (single- or double-stranded, linear or circular, and segmented or non-segmented) are used to classify the virus core structures. 3-Deazaadenosine, an inhibitor of adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase, inhibits reproduction of Rous sarcoma virus and transformation of chick embryo cells Virology. Study: Active Substance Inhibits Viral Replication of Hepatitis E Virus. lysogenic cycle: A form of viral reproduction involving the fusion of the nucleic acid of a bacteriophage with that of a host, followed by proliferation of the resulting prophage. How a virus or bacteria can infect a cell and spread the infection all over a living being? They must rely on a host cell for reproduction. metabolism- build up/ break down of food (catabolism/anabolism), energy for organism, (chemical … Some bacterial cells are resistant to a variety of antimicrobials because they actively pump the drugs out of the cell. A virus must use cell processes to replicate. Factors influencing viral tissue tropism include: 1) the presence of cellular receptors permitting viral entry, 2) availability of transcription factors involved in viral replication, 3) the molecular nature of the viral tropogen, and 4) the cellular receptors are the proteins found on a cell or viral surface. Adaptive (specific) ... what type of cell specializes in killing virus infected, cancer, or foreign graft cells directly. Viral replication is the formation of biological viruses during the infection process in the target host cells. 36) The antifungals known as polyenes interact with ________, a lipid unique to fungus membranes. The symptom… Paul Erhlich discovered the first antibiotic. These changes, called cytopathic (causing cell damage) effects, can change cell functions or even destroy the cell. ... Studies show that zinc can block the replication and growth of viruses in the body and in lab tests. What is the best interpretation of what is observed on the plate? Marvin S. Reitz Jr., Robert C. Gallo, in Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases (Eighth Edition), 2015 Envelope Glycoproteins and Viral Fusion. Antiviral medications frequently block unique (proteins/enzymes/molecules) to prevent production of a new virus. 2018-08-06 13:19:00. Some bacteria develop resistance to groups of drugs because the drugs are all structurally similar to each other; this is a phenomenon known as (cross/multiple/synergistic) resistance. Replication between viruses is greatly varied and depends on the type of … https://www.atsu.edu/faculty/chamberlain/website/lects/interfer.htm 27) Which of the following statements is true of selective toxicity? Genital herpes is a common condition caused by the herpes simplex virus (Figure 23.16), an enveloped, double-stranded DNA virus that is classified into two distinct types. June 18, 2020 GMT. Attachment: Viral proteins on the capsid or phospholipid envelope interact with It is most likely a(n). After reading this article you will know that how do viruses reproduce and its life cycle. 32) Antimicrobials known as "attachment antagonists" are particularly useful for preventing, 33) The broth dilution test can provide information for determining. HT inhibits CHIKV replication by down-regulating viral protein expression, while HHT shows activity against HBV and the coronavirus. 14) A compound is extracted from a microbial culture and is modified in the laboratory for use as an oral medication. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) can evade host detection by downregulation of interferon signaling pathways. Drugs known as beta-lactams interfere with bacterial (DNA/folic acid/cell wall) synthesis. Because all cells engage in protein synthesis, there are few antimicrobial drugs that selectively inhibit this process. Through the generation of abundant copies of its genome and packaging these copies, the virus continues infecting new hosts. 8) Figure 10.1 represents a Petri plate. gene expression & genome replication for dsDNA viruses. Selective (action/toxicity/treatment) means that a given antimicrobial agent is more toxic to a pathogen than to the host being treated. 2016 Oct 6;7:409. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2016.00409. 13) Which of the following can result when antibiotic therapy disrupts the normal microbiota? In this study we demonstrate that the combination of Zn(2+) and PT at low concentrations (2 µM Zn(2+) and 2 µM PT) inhibits the replication of SARS-coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and equine arteritis virus … 28) Antimicrobials that block protein synthesis by binding to the mRNA are. For the virus to reproduce, those chains have to be broken down and cut into smaller strands by an enzyme called the main protease. How Viruses Infect Cells . Reproduction in Viruses or Replication of viruses are obligate intracellular parasite. Organs that are commonly affected by drug toxicity include the kidneys and the liver. K i of 0.6 μM, respectively bacterial colony B has depleted the in! 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