Boron deficiency may be caused by overliming the soil. doi: 10.1104/pp.92.3.602, Schroeder, J. I., Delhaize, E., Frommer, W. B., Guerinot, M. L., Harrison, M. J., Herrera-Estrella, L., et al. This leads to immobilization of the soil boron which cannot be taken up by the plant then. Exp. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Micro-Tom was performed as described previously (Sun et al., 2006) with minor modifications. Fujiwara, T., Hirai, M. Y., Chino, M., Komeda, Y., and Naito, S. (1992). os-37, 629–672. Comparative Effects of Boron Toxicity and Deficiency on the Growth, Chlorophyll, Protein and some Ca... Parameters Symptomatic for Boron Toxicity in Leaves of Tomato Plants, Boron Stress and Plant Carbon and Nitrogen Relations. However, signs of boron toxicity may appear when plants are exposed to higher concentrations of the mineral. The Actin-like gene was used as a positive control and all plants (including non-transgenic plants) showed a band at the expected size. Boron Deficiency in Tomatoes. B was applied as Boric acid (H 3 BO 3) and at the rate of 0.33ppm (FN/B-optimal dosage) which served as control, 0 ppm (-B) served as B-deficient level, 1.65, 3.30 and 6.60ppm (×5B, ×10B and ×20B respectively) served as toxic levels. is a widespread problem that reduces yield and fruit quality but is often not recognized by growers. pronounced effect on the production and. Alternative methods for correcting boron deficiencies. Occasionally, if tap water contains too much Boron, low pH can favor Boron toxicity. Eureka). In vitro conditions for the formation and hydrolysis of the dimer. Wild-type and Line 3 (weakly expressing transgenic line) showed a defect in shoot growth under B-deficient conditions, especially in the development of new leaves. doi: 10.1074/jbc.271.37.22923, Pérez-Castro, R., Kasai, K., Gainza-Cortés, F., Ruiz-Lara, S., Casaretto, J. 271, 22923–22930. Results : A change from irrigated rice to maize reduced soil C and N contents with resulting decreases in dry season crop yields. In addition, iron deficiency and zinc has (1993) ... Boron deficiency In fresh-market tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) Orange orchards in the calcareous soil widely suffer from calcium (Ca) and zinc (Zn) deficiencies because they are immobile in plants while there are abundant of calcium carbonate in the soil. To investigate the effect of heterologous AtBOR1 expression on growth of tomato plants under B-deficiency, non-transgenic plants and three transgenic T1 lines were grown hydroponically in the presence of 0.1 or 100 μM boric acid. The occurrence and correction of boron deficiency. Also with severe Calcium deficiency the growing point dies and the younger leaves are deformed, but in this case leaf tips and margins wither and the fruits show typical blossom-end rot. In support of this argument, Also with severe Calcium deficiency the growing point dies and the younger leaves are deformed, but in this case leaf tips and margins wither and the fruits show typical blossom-end rot. Boron deficiency In fresh-market tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) Semiquantitative RT-PCR was performed using primers specific to AtBOR1 or the Actin-like gene. Increased expression of AtNIP5;1 and/or AtBOR1 significantly improved vegetative and reproductive growth of A. thaliana with limited B supply. PCR-positive transgenic plants and non-transgenic plants were transferred to MGRL hydroponic solution (Fujiwara et al., 1992) containing 100 μM boric acid. Chem.286, 6175–6183. Kosaco with respect to excessive B in the environment. doi: 10.1007/BF00011434, Hu, H. I., and Brown, P. H. (1994). B stress may also decrease normal aerobic respiration and increase fermentation and the pentose phosphate pathway. Hortic. Changing consumer demand currently drives a replacement of wheat by high‐value vegetables during the dry season, while emerging water shortages lead to a substitution of rice by maize in the wet season. pTF469 and pHH104 were used for transformation of tomato plants to obtain plants expressing AtBOR1. (A) Genomic DNA was extracted from non-transgenic (NT) and regenerated T0 plants (L1, L2, and L3). Under the low-B treatment, shoot B concentration was 1.4-fold higher in L2 than in non-transgenic plants and L3. 1061-1068. B-deficiency symptoms of tomato plants are represented by shoot growth inhibition, curly and yellowish leaves of young seedlings, and defects in quality fruit setting during the reproductive growth stages (Johnston and Fisher, 1930; Brown and Jones, 1971; Yamauchi et al., 1986). Plant Cell 23, 3533–3546. On the other hand, excess boron can block the transportation of calcium, so it is important that accurate application rates are adhered to. (2012). Shoot dry weight of L2, which showed improved B-deficiency-tolerance (Figures 2H,I), was slightly higher than those of the non-transgenic plants and L3, although not significantly (Figure 3A). Using membrane transporters to improve crops for sustainable food production. FURTHER EVIDENCE THAT BORON IS ESSENTIAL FOR THE GROWTH OF LETTUCE. B-deficient growth conditions impair vegetative and/or reproductive growth (Dell and Huang, 1997; Shorrocks, 1997), and B-deficiency has been observed in various agricultural soils, which limits crop production globally (Shorrocks, 1997). Boron application was associated with increased N uptake by tomato in field culture, but not under hydroponic culture. The total so, born concentrations there was a gradual mino, was a significant increase in both fresh and dry weights, Our results indicated that 100 ppm B concentration, induced the maximum growth for tomato. Fruit B concentrations in transgenic tomato plants expressing AtBOR1 under B-deficiency and sufficiency. Seeds of non-transgenic and transgenic plants (T1) were germinated on vermiculite and grown for 14 days (22°C, 16 h light/8 h dark). Soc. Low soil Zn after rice cultivation led to shortage in Zn uptake by vegetables in both greenhouse and field experiments. THE INFLUENCE OF BORON ON THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND GROWTH OF THE TOMATO PLANT. These results suggest that upregulating B-transporter expression may improve the growth of fruit-bearing crops under B-deficient conditions. doi: 10.1111/J.1365-313x.2006.02763.X, Miwa, K., Wakuta, S., Takada, S., Ide, K., Takano, J., Naito, S., et al. The effect of boric acid and borax on the broad bean and certain other plants. Furthermore, shoot and fruit B accumulation under the low-B conditions significantly increased in L1 and L2, respectively, compared to non-transgenic plants, but not in L3 (Figures 3B and 4A). Wilting shoots, poor bud development, bud death, swollen stems, and pith cavities are all signs of boron deficiency in a variety of vegetables. A protein determination method which involves the binding of Coomassie Brilliant Blue G-250 to protein is described. seedlings High pH favors Boron deficiency. The resulting B and to a lesser degree Zn deficiencies adversely affect yields as monitored as well in this experiment (Ozturk et al., 2010), marketability of the harvested product (Tombuloglu et al., 2012), and possibly the nutritional quality, too (Ozturk et al., 2010;Tombuloglu et al., 2012;Liu et al., 2019). Moreover, the study suggested three different optimal concentrations; 0.33, 1.65 and > 3.30 ppm respectively for general growth, chlorophyll and carotenoids synthesis in maize seedlings. NIP6;1 is a boric acid channel for preferential transport of boron to growing shoot tissues in Arabidopsis. What causes boron deficiency in plants? We performed several batches of transformation experiments and obtained three independent transgenic tomato lines carrying P35S-AtBOR1 (Figure 1A) with substantial seed yields. The shift from wheat to vegetables increased the demand for B and to a lesser extent for Zn, and consequently vegetables showed visual symptoms of B deficiency. In addition, the content of Ca and B were increased in shoot and root of tomato, K was increased in shoot and decreased in root, while Na increased in root and decreased in shoot in response to boron application. We examined the growth and B accumulation in these plants subjected to different B conditions. Effects of boron deficiency and calcium supply on the calcium metabolism in tomato plant. Hence, B is important for root elongation (Kouchi and Kumazawa, 1975), leaf expansion (Kirk and Loneragan, 1988; Huang et al., 1996; Dell and Huang, 1997), viable pollen grain production, and pollen tube elongation (Garg et al., 1979; Cheng and Rerkasem, 1993). Josefina). After determination of total shoot dry weight, samples were acid-digested and subjected to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS; SPQ-9000, Seiko Instruments Inc., Chiba, Japan) for quantifying the B concentration (Takano et al., 2002). Our results clearly demonstrated the presence of boron and niacin in growth medium stimulated expression and synthesis of proteins role in plant defence mechanism. doi: 10.1104/pp.5.3.387, Kasai, K., Takano, J., Miwa, K., Toyoda, A., and Fujiwara, T. (2011). Soil Factors Affecting Boron Deficiency in Plants Boron deficiency is highly prevalent in sandy acidic soils with low organic matter, due to the potential for B leaching. This assay is very reproducible and rapid with the dye binding process virtually complete in approximately 2 min with good color stability for 1 hr. In the present study, we established transgenic tomato plants tolerant to B-deficient environments by upregulating a B-transporter gene. Boron plays a vital role in transporting sugars within the plant. In this study the effects of exogenous NO as sodium nitroprusside (SNP) on boron (B)-induced oxidative damage and growth in maize (Zea mays L.) were investigated. Since the concentration range between B-deficiency and toxicity is rather narrow in many plants, improper B fertilization can lead to an excess dosage and negatively affect crop growth (Francois, 1984; Gupta et al., 1985; Schon and Blevins, 1990). Johnston ES, Dore WH. Optimal B concentrations in culture media are narrow, and overdose of B leads to increased B accumulation in plant tissues and plant growth inhibition (Francois, 1984; Gupta et al., 1985; Schon and Blevins, 1990). SNP (100μM) that was applied to seeds before germination significantly increased plant height (respectively, 8 and 5%), fresh weight (respectively, 9 and 6%), and dry weight (respectively, 15 and 12%) of both 11 and 15 day old maize. B stress also impacts many aspects of N relations, including changing levels of N uptake proteins, decreasing N uptake rates, and affecting levels or activities of N assimilation enzymes, which then change amino-acid composition and %N. The objective of this research was to study the how B toxicity (0.5 and 2 mM B) affects the time course of different indicators of abiotic stress in leaves of two tomato genotypes having different sensitivity to B toxicity (cv. Plant Soil52, 591–594. Physiol. Boron accumulates in the leaf margins, turning them black. Fourteen days after transfer, roots of the plants were harvested for RNA extraction. of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering. Impact Factor 4.402 | CiteScore 7.8More on impact ›, From soil to seed: micronutrient movement into and within the plant Moreover, the root and shoot soluble proteins were increased gradually with increasing boron concentrations. Follow the test result recommendations precisely. Effect of different boron concentrations on mineral contents (mg/g dry wt.) The leaves become wrinkled and curled with light green colour. Endocytosis and degradation of BOR1, a boron transporter of Arabidopsis thaliana, regulated by boron availability. Plant Cell 20, 2860–2875. Significant contribution of boron stored in seeds to initial growth of rice seedlings. Since B-deficiency is a serious issue in various crop productions, our findings suggest that application of AtBOR1 or its ortholog to crop breeding may improve growth under B-deficient cultivation conditions. Boron concentrations in dry biomass were below the critical limits with < 10 mg B kg⁻¹ in wheat, < 21 mg B kg⁻¹ in cauliflower, and < 23 mg B kg⁻¹ in tomato. compared to control. The Arabidopsis major intrinsic protein NIP5;1 is essential for efficient boron uptake and plant development under boron limitation. The incorporation of 4SCa into the cell wall in the upper leaves was increased by B deficiency at both Ca levels. (1996). The amplified fragment was subcloned into pENTR/D-TOPO (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA, USA). Boron deficiency prevents root growth and disrupts cell membranes, which has a direct effect on plant’s uptake mechanism. (2011). Overexpression of AtNIP5;1, a boric acid channel for root B uptake, and/or AtBOR1, an efflux B transporter for xylem loading, improves the vegetative and reproductive growth of A. thaliana under B-deficient conditions (Miwa et al., 2006; Kato et al., 2009). doi: 10.1105/tpc.106.041640, Tanaka, M., Wallace, I. S., Takano, J., Roberts, D. M., and Fujiwara, T. (2008). (2003). In fact, AtBOR1-overexpressing A. thaliana accumulates wild-type levels of B under excess B treatments (Miwa et al., 2006). Contrasting results have been presented by researchers on the interaction of calcium and boron as Rostami et al. Nitric Oxide (NO) is an important signal molecule modulating the plants responses to abiotic stresses. Plant Cell Physiol.50, 58–66. B-deficiency occurs in various fields globally (Shorrocks, 1997). doi: 10.1126/science.1062319, O’Neill, M. A., Warrenfeltz, D., Kates, K., Pellerin, P., Doco, T., Darvill, A.G., et al. Fruit B concentration under the B-deficient condition appeared higher in L2 than in non-transgenic plants, although the difference was not significant. Plants were incubated at 25°C under a 16 h light/8 h dark cycle. doi: 10.1093/pcp/pcs001, Sakamoto, T., Inui, Y. T., Uraguchi, S., Yoshizumi, T., Matsunaga, S., Mastui, M., et al. Establishment of transgenic tomato expressing AtBOR1. PCR was performed using obtained cDNA as template. Esim N, Atici O. Nitric oxide allev. doi: 10.4141/cjss85-044, Huang, L., Ye, Z., and Bell, R. (1996). Therefore, as established in A. thaliana, molecular breeding of crops with enhanced B-transport activity is a promising approach to address B-deficiency (Miwa et al., 2006; Kato et al., 2009). Symptoms: Stunted growth and tip dieback on lettuce, brown cracks in celery; rotten swedes, turnips and celeriac; dimples in pears with brown patches underneath. Francois, L. E. (1984). Soils with high adsorption and retention capacity (e.g., soils with high pH and rich in clay minerals and iron or aluminum oxides) are also commonly impacted by B deficiency. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. This leads to immobilization of the soil boron which cannot be taken up by the plant then. Ca and Zn foliar treatments both resulted on B reduction in the orange leaves. J. This indicates that BOR1 homologs are highly conserved in crops and can be used to improve B-deficiency-tolerance. doi: 10.1080/00380768.1975.10432630, Leaungthitikanchana, S., Fujibe, T., Tanaka, M., Wang, S., Sotta, N., Takano, J., et al. In this study, we examined whether high expression of a borate transporter gene increases B accumulation in shoots and improves the growth of tomato plant, a model of fruit-bearing crops, under B-deficient conditions. In field culture, foliar and/or soil applied B similarly increased fresh-market tomato plant and root dry weight, uptake, and tissue concentrations of N, Ca, K, and B, and improved fruit set, total yields, marketable yields, fruit shelf life, and fruit firmness. 54, 2011–2019. Plant Cell 19, 2624–2635. 7, pp. The trypsin-digested peptides were analyzed on nanoLC-ESIMS/MS. Boron (B) is an essential micronutrient in plants, and its deficiency causes defects in both vegetative and reproductive growth in various crops in the field. Several, relatively high and low amounts of bo, Physiology. In this study, the susceptibility of Zea mays to excess and deficiency of B was obtained by feeding the seedlings with varied concentrations of B in standard, The incidence of boron (B) toxicity has risen in areas of intensive agriculture close to the Mediterranean sea. Based on the molecular mechanisms of B transport, we generated A. thaliana plants tolerant to low-B conditions by upregulating B-transporter genes (Miwa et al., 2006; Kato et al., 2009). doi: 10.1093/pcp/pct059, Leaungthitikanchana, S., Tanaka, M., Lordkaew, S., Jamjod, S., Rerkasem, B., and Fujiwara, T. (2014). A narrow B concentration range exists between deficient and toxic levels for plants, which complicates B fertilizer application (Francois, 1984; Gupta et al., 1985; Schon and Blevins, 1990). © 2008-2021 ResearchGate GmbH. To determine the shoot B concentration, whole shoots were harvested after 20 days of hydroponic culture and then dried at 60°C for at least 3 days. Seed germination and seedling growth of the seeds produced from plants that have been sprayed with Ca and B, which were better than the control seeds. Yamauchi, T., Hara, T., and Sonoda, Y. This work was supported in part by a grant from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan (a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research S. No. Boron is a micronutrient that is required in very small amounts by vegetable crops and other plants. © 2016, Institute of Integrative Omics and Applied Biotechnology. Effect of different boron concentrations on shoot fresh and dry weights (mg) of tomato plant. The results also showed that foliar application of Ca or/and B led to positive increases of macro (N, P, K, Ca and Mg) and micronutrients (Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu) concentration in dry bean leaves and seeds. A nutrient supplement that contains kelp will give plants a much need boost of boron, along with the added benefit of calcium and magnesium.. Another method a lot of gardeners and growers like to apply is with the use of borax or boric acid. Am. Levels of nonstructural carbohydrates are altered by B stress, likely via shifts in fluxes among metabolic pathways. Among them, three lines showed good fertility and more than 100 seeds were obtained from each line. germination and not providing a seedling development. Plant Cell Physiol. As discussed in a recent review (Schroeder et al., 2013), regulation and manipulation of plant membrane transporters can be used to improve crop production under various soil-derived stresses such as aluminum toxicity and nutrient deficiency. We conclude that photosynthesis is an early sensitive target for B stress, with many aspects of both light and CO2-fixation reactions. Effect of foliar spray of calcium and zinc on yield, nutrients concentration and fruit quality of orange, Improving seed production of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) plants as a response for Calcium and Boron, Diagnosis of Zinc and Boron availability in emerging vegetable‐based crop rotations in Nepal, Flowering induction and formation of salak ( Salacca sumaterana Becc) fruit with potassium and boron fertilization, Effect of potassium and boron on quality parameters of carrot, Boron Improves Growth, Yield, Quality, and Nutrient Content of Tomato. A rapid and sensitive method for the quantification of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein‐dye binding, Cleavage of Structural Proteins during the Assembly of the Head of Bacteriophage T4, Soil Fertility and Fertilizers- an Introduction to Nutrient Management, Nitric oxide alleviates boron toxicity by reducing oxidative damage and growth inhibition in maize seedlings (Zea mays L.), Effect of applied boron on nutrients and uptake by barley crop, A Rapid and Sensitive Method for Quantitation of Microgram Quantities of Protein Utilizing the Principle of Protein-Dye Binding, Identification of proteins involved in excess boron stress in roots of carrot (Daucus carota L.) and role of niacin in the protein profiles, The Chemical Analysis of Ecological Materials, PHYSIOLOGICAL STUDIES ON THE ROLE OF CYANOBACTERIA IN AMELIORATING THE TOXIC EFFECTS OF COPPER IN TRIGONELLA FOENUM GRACUM. This tendency of an increased B concentration in L1 and L2 was not observed under B-sufficient conditions (Figure 4B). Rhamnogalacturonan-II, a pectic polysaccharide in the walls of growing plant cell, forms a dimer that is covalently cross-linked by a borate ester. Therefore, Cell-type specificity of the expression of Os BOR1, a rice efflux boron transporter gene, is regulated in response to boron availability for efficient boron uptake and xylem loading. A., Peña-Cortés, H., et al. Shoot dry weight (A) and B concentration in shoots (B) were measured. and 20% Fe extracted by the crop until harvest. Failure to set fruit is common and the fruit may be ridged, show corky patches, and ripen unevenly. This tendency was not observed in the 100 μM boric acid treatment. Briefly, for hygromycin selection, 5 mg/L of hygromycin was added to the callus induction and shoot induction media. The characteristics were germination percentage and nutrients iron sulphate and zinc sulphate. doi: 10.1073/Pnas.0502060102, Takano, J., Noguchi, K., Yasumori, M., Kobayashi, M., Gajdos, Z., Miwa, K., et al. Nature 420, 337–340. Plant Soil 193, 181–198. The addition of B significantly reduced the growth of plants and increased the values of electrolyte leakage, malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) contents. Soil Sci. Proc. Plant Physiol.99, 263–268. Highly boron deficiency-tolerant plants generated by enhanced expression of NIP5;1, a boric acid channel. Effect of different boron concentrations on root and shoot boron contents (mg/g dry wt.) (1999). Hence, associated changes in soil aeration status and shifting conditions of soil nutrient supply to match crop nutrient demand are expected to increase the requirements for the principle limiting micro‐nutrients such as boron (B) and zinc (Zn). doi: 10.1007/BF02277956, Gupta, U. C., Jame, Y. W., Campbell, C. A., Leyshon, A. J., and Nicholaichuk, W. (1985). The importance of sampling immature leaves for the diagnosis of boron deficiency in oilseed rape (Brassica napus cv. Method : We analyzed the B and Zn availability in rice‐ and maize‐based systems as well as crop yields and the nutrient uptake by wheat, cauliflower, and tomato during the dry season in Nepal. Mcllrath and Falser (10, 11), however, have pointed out that the phloem cells of boron-deficient tomato and turnip plants may well cease to function normally even before signs of anatomical change are evident. doi: 10.1007/BF00025045, Curtis, M. D., and Grossniklaus, U. The generation of B-deficiency-tolerant A. thaliana plants suggests that upregulating B-transporter expression can improve the growth of crops under B-deficiency. |, Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). Kosaco and cv. (2013). We established three independent transgenic tomato plants lines expressing AtBOR1 using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. cv. In the last two decades, numerous studies on model or herbaceous plants have contributed greatly to our understanding of the complex network of B-deficiency responses and mechanisms for tolerance. The results show that the increase of Fe and Zn doses in the seeds was not positive, reducing the Rep. 39, 1963–1973. Trends Plant Sci. doi: 10.1093/pcp/pci251, Sun, J., Shi, L., Zhang, C., and Xu, F. (2012). 92, 602–607. These phenotypes are typical B-deficiency symptoms reported in early tomato seedlings, suggesting that our experimental condition was suitable for evaluating the effects of AtBOR1 overexpression in young tomato plants grown under limited B availability. Scott, J. W., and Harbaugh, B. K. (1989). Plant Cell Physiol. for short, and grow them on in larger granules of D.E. Experiment aimed to study the foliar application with calcium (Ca) and boron (B) on growth, nutrient content and yield quantity and quality of dry beans plant (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Balanced nutrients application is essential to increase yield, improve quality and prevent contaminations. AtBOR1 homologous genes have been isolated from crops such as rice (Nakagawa et al., 2007; Tanaka et al., 2013), grapevine (Pérez-Castro et al., 2012), wheat (Leaungthitikanchana et al., 2013), and Brassica napus (Sun et al., 2012). 22 Fruit from plants receiving foliar or root applied B contained more B, and K than fruit from plants not receiving B, indicating that B was translocated from leaves to fruit and is an important factor in the management of K nutrition in tomato. The similar growth and yield responses of tomato to foliar and root B application suggests that B is translocated in the phloem in tomatoes. Florida Agric. All rights reserved. Protein bands of interest were excised from gel and digested by trypsin. Biol. T-DNA insertion was then examined by PCR as described above. 22, No. Furthermore, the measured B-induced oxidative stress increased MDA, electrolyte leakage, (H2O2) content when compared to a supplementation of NO. Chem. Results showed that interaction of calcium and zinc on yield has been significant (p≤0.05) and increased Ca and Zn levels in the foliage. The negative effects of B stress on C and N relations are likely interrelated. Passive diffusion was believed to be the major process of transmembrane B transport prior to the identification of B-transporting molecules (Takano et al., 2008). [PMC free article] McHargue JS, Calfee RK. Experiments were performed with at least four replications and representative individuals are shown in Figure 2. mM B, the tomato plants showed a loss of biomass and foliar area. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. Boron (B) is an essential micronutrient for plants (Warington, 1923). In this study, we identified the proteins which respond to the boron excess stress in Daucus carota root cells, and examined the effects of niacin (nicotinamide) on the protein profiles of boron excess. The first sign of boron deficiency in tomatoes is a terminal chlorosis on the younger leaves. For the low-B treatment, the fruits of L1 accumulated significantly higher B than non-transgenic plants (Figure 4A). All tested regenerated T0 plants showed a band at the expected size. The results suggest that the increased NO, resulting from SNP application, improved the antioxidant capacity of maize plants against B-induced oxidative stress. In Arabidopsis thaliana roots, AtNIP5;1, a boric acid channel, plays a role in B uptake (Takano et al., 2006). Boron deficiency slight increased the total Ca uptake by the plant and inhibited the Ca trans- location to the upper leaves. The treatments were 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% of Zn and 0, 5, 10, 15 Boron deficiency results in necrosis of meristematic tissues in the growing region, leading to loss of apical dominance and the development of a rosette condition. Jaya). (cf. 5:125. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2014.00125. Biol. There is little or no interference from cations such as sodium or potassium nor from carbohydrates such as sucrose. In agreement with this phenotype, shoot biomass under low-B conditions was higher in the strongly expressing AtBOR1line. Boron deficiency leads to impeded cell wall synthesis, poor cell wall ductility, and continuous accumulation of oxides and peroxides, resulting in weak growth and even necrosis in young and vigorous growing tomato plants. Interference by small amounts of detergent may be eliminated by the use of proper controls. The only components found to give excessive interfering color in the assay are relatively large amounts of detergents such as sodium dodecyl sulfate, Triton X-100, and commercial glassware detergents.