Finger Millet Farming (Ragi) Guide:-Finger Millet Farming (Ragi) Introduction of Finger Millet: – Finger Millet also knows as “Ragi” in India .This is a hardy popular food and wonder grain crop next to wheat, maize & rice in India. (S.M.Phillips), Eleusine jaegeri (Pilg. x��=]�ܶ����K�f��� ��*ٱ]rb�b)y��@���5�Y�r��=�o�� @�$8P���\^�p�F�����>q�w7ݦ�~���/����m���q����~w<�/��e��ۧO�-�6{{��� 4 0 obj It is generally considered as a drought-tolerant crop, but compared with other millets, such as pearl millet and sorghum, it prefers moderate rainfall (500 millimetres (20 in) annually). [4] Finger millet can tolerate moderately acidic soils (pH 5), but also moderately alkaline soils (pH 8.2). pearl millet and finger millet is less than 25% of sugarc ane and banana and 30% t hat of rice” (Millet Network of India-Deccan Development Society-FIAN , 2009). Satva, pole (dosa), bhakri, ambil (a sour porridge), and pappad are common dishes made using finger millet. In a 100-gram (3 1⁄2-ounce) reference amount, millet flour provides 1,600 kilojoules (382 kilocalories) of food energy and is a rich source (20% or more of the Daily Value, DV) of protein, dietary fiber, several B vitamins, and numerous dietary minerals. In Andhra Pradesh, ragi sankati or ragi muddha – ragi balls – are eaten in the morning with chilli, onions, and sambar. For example, the Harnessing Opportunities for Productivity Enhancement of Sorghum and Millets in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia (HOPE) project is increasing yields of finger millet in Tanzania by encouraging farmers to grow improved varieties. This was about 37% of all the recorded Millet's in the USA. Basic information and facts Origin: Finger millet originates from east Africa, possibly Uganda or Ethiopia. In Nepal, a thick dough (ḍhĩḍo) made of millet flour (kōdō) is cooked and eaten by hand. %���� 1 0 obj [10] Measures to control Sesamia inferens are uprooting of infected plants, destroying of stubbles, having a crop rotation, chemical control with insecticides, biological measures such as pheromone traps, or biological pest control with the use of antagonistic organisms (e.g. In northwest Vietnam, finger millet is used as a medicine for women at childbirth. Therefore, the main product of finger millet is whole grain flour. When finger millet is germinated, enzymes are activated, which transfer starches into other carbohydrates such as sugars. For early Rabi and Kharif season, seedlings should be transplanted at 25 cm x 10 cm and for late Kharif season at 30 cm x 10 cm. Whole grain millet is fermented to make tongba. However, finger millet is difficult to mill due to the small size of the seeds and because the bran is bound very tightly to the endosperm. Finger millet (Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn), little millet (Panicum sumatrense Roth ex Roem.& Schult. It has poor content of calcium, potassium, and sodium (less than 10% DV, table). Furthermore, it can tolerate soil salinity up to a certain extent. Finger Millet 1. "�aD�4�p���r�����6��RM^�$�T � ���PЖp������ ��D��y�����չ���U5�g�P����o^Ǧ�*�ۨs��U��ocCk��|�B�gl���x*s��˅1uʛ3�j������:��Z+���bk���.��!�Z��j�: Z���I�S�)��`u Its seeds are very small, which leads to a relatively slow development in early growing stages. In 1840 there were 26 Millet families living in Massachusetts. The grains should then be cured to obtain maturity by heaping the harvested earheads in shade for one day without drying, so that the humidity and temperature increase and the grains get cured. The organic weed management with this method is a problem, because it is difficult to distinguish between weed and crop. [11] Chemical measures can be direct spraying of systemic fungicides, such as the active ingredients pyroquilon or tricyclazone or seed dressings with fungicides such as trycyclozole.[11][13]. 2 0 obj Finger millet contains thrice the amount of calcium as milk 1 and almost 8 times the amount found in other cereals 3.Bioavailability of calcium from meals prepared from finger millet is higher than from other wheat- and sorghum-based meals 2. This helps their communities have more balanced diets and become more resilient to pests and drought. It is then eaten with a spicy meat curry and is usually swallowed in small balls, rather than chewing. Especially in early growing stages of the crop and the weed and when broadcast seeding instead of row seeding is applied (as often the case in East Africa), the two species are very difficult to distinguish. T��e. It is commonly called kodo in Nepal where 877 accessions have been maintained by National Plant Genetic Resource Centre, Khumaltar, Nepal. [10], Finger millet pests are bird predators, such as quelea in East Africa. Hosts – Sorghum, Pearl Millet, Finger Millet. The second harvest is around seven days after the first. Tropical Central Africa supports scattered regions of finger millet intercropping mostly with legumes, but also with cassava, plantain, and vegetables. ), Eleusine kigeziensis (S.M.Phillips), Eleusine multiflora (Hochst. Physical weed control in financial resource-limited communities growing finger millet are mainly hand weeding or weeding with a hand hoe. Lam. Rotti is a traditional Karnataka Special Breakfast popularly made with flours like Rice (Akki Roti), Ragi and Jowar.If you are looking at delicious ways of using Ragi in your kitchen, then this wholesome Ragi Rotti recipe is highly recommended.. Ragi is also known as Nachni, Finger Millet… Broadcasting: Seeds are directly sown in the field. Introduction • Finger millet is an annual plant widely grown as a cereal • Originally native to the Ethiopian highlands • Cultivate in more than 25 countries in; – Africa (eastern and southern) – Asia (from Near East to Far East) • As a staple food grain • The major producers are Uganda, India, Nepal, and China Eleusine coracana, or finger millet, is an annual herbaceous plant widely grown as a cereal crop in the arid and semiarid areas in Africa and Asia. Its main growing area ranges from 20°N to 20°S, meaning mainly the semiarid to arid tropics. Furthermore, the delicate seed can get crushed during the milling. The women finger millet advocates of Western Kenya Michael Major, Crop Trust Women in Kakamega and Busia counties of Western Kenya are going against the grain. [2][3] It is a tetraploid and self-pollinating species probably evolved from its wild relative Eleusine africana. endobj (Poaceae: Chloridoideae): Chloroplast DNA and Total Evidence", "Genome organization and polyploid evolution in the genus Eleusine (Poaceae)", "Regeneration guidelines Fingermillet, ICRISAT", "Evaluation of ecologies and severity of Striga weed on rice in sub-Saharan Africa", "Improved methodologies for breeding striga-resistant sorghums", "Resistance to Striga hermonthica in Wild Accessions of the Primary Gene Pool of Pennisetum glaucum", "Pink Stem Borer (Sesamia inference): Nature, Life Cycle and Control", https://www.livechennai.com/healthnews.asp?catid=10&newsid=45408&nav=n, List of top international rankings by country, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Eleusine_coracana&oldid=996485567, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2020, Articles needing additional references from February 2019, All articles needing additional references, Taxonbars with automatically added basionyms, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, With cereals: Finger millet/maize, finger millet/. Ragi mudde and bhajji with sambar and chutney, Idli, a South Indian breakfast dish made from ragi flour, Taxonomy and botanical description of finger millet, Growing finger millet to improve nutrition, CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics, Learn how and when to remove this template message, "The Plant List: A Working List of All Plant Species", "Phenotypic Diversity of Nepalese Finger Millet (Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn.) Its straw can be used as an animal feed. The pathogen leads to drying out of leaves, neck rots, and ear rots. Cultural measures to control finger millet blast suggested by ICRISAT for Eastern Africa include crop rotations with nonhost crops such as legumes, deep ploughing under of finger millet straw on infected fields, washing of field tools after use to prevent dissemination of the pathogen to uninfected fields, weed control to reduce infections by weed hosts, and avoiding of high plant densities to impede the pathogen dispersal from plant to plant. In southern India, on pediatrician’s recommendation, finger millet is used in preparing baby food, because of millet’s high nutritional content, especially iron and calcium. It is taken with sambar or kuzhambu. [14] Striga can be controlled with limited success by hand weeding, herbicide application, crop rotations, improved soil fertility, intercropping and biological control. [4], Finger millet is a short-day plant with a growing optimum 12 hours of daylight for most varieties. Common name: Ragi. Damage symptoms. Another pathogen of relevance in the finger millet cultivation is the fungus Helminthosporium nodulosum, causing leaf blight. The development of commercial mechanical milling systems for finger millet is challenging. In Asia, this crop can be grown as rainfed as well as irrigated. PL. stream Leveling and watering of beds is required during transplanting. Finger millet has a good malting activity. It is grown both are grain and forage. There are several different types of millets. Subscribe Now http://bit.ly/1hsh63t-~-~~-~~~-~~-~-https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Egju3_VMb2sSubscribe Now http://bit.ly/1LNza7MWatch 3D Finger Family … This makes finger millet a weak competitor for light, water, and nutrients compared with weeds. The most Millet families were found in the USA in 1880. Finger Millet (Eleusine coracana(L.) Gaertn.) In the Kumaon region of northern India, ragi is traditionally fed to women after child birth. Genome collinearity analysis revealed that there was a high synteny between genomes of finger millet and rice followed by foxtail millet, and the least synteny was witnessed between finger millet and maize. [citation needed]. endobj This is then rolled into balls of desired size and consumed with sambar (huli), saaru (ಸಾರು), or curries. Its use in holy Hindu practices is barred especially by upper castes. Pink larva enters into the stem and causes dead heart symptom. Finger millet can grow on various soils, including highly weathered tropical lateritic soils. Vernacular Names: Finger millet (English), Ragi, Mandua, Nagli and kapai. There are various kinds of millet available throughout the cosmos, but among them most commonly found millets are finger millet, little millet, foxtail millet, and proso millet. [20] Ragi is dried, powdered, and boiled to form a thick mass that is allowed to cool. Relative to other species (pearl millet and sorghum), finger millet has a higher tolerance to cool temperatures. The flour is consumed with milk, boiled water, or yogurt. Striga, a parasitic weed which occurs naturally in parts of Africa, Asia, and Australia, can severely affect the crop and yield losses in finger millet and other cereals by 20 to 80%. 1.Pink stem borer. This has disadvantages, such as reduced storage time of the flour due to the high oil content. This is the common method because it is the easiest way and no special machinery is required. Finger millet is a seeded annual cereal which belongs to the grass family, Poaceae. finger millet. [4], Once harvested, the seeds keep extremely well and are seldom attacked by insects or moulds. As a first step of processing finger millet can be milled to produce flour. volume_up. It is also made in the form of pancakes with chopped onions and tomatoes. Its ability to bear waterlogging is limited, so good drainage of the soils and moderate water-holding capacity are optimal. For Ugandan finger millet varieties, for instance, the optimal average growth temperature ranges at about 27 °C, while the minimal temperatures should not be lower than 18 °C. Ragi is called koozh – a staple diet in farming communities, eaten along with raw onions and green chillies. [4] Besides Eleusine indica, the species Xanthium strumarium, which is animal dispersed and the stolon-owning species Cyperus rotondus and Cynodon dactylon are important finger millet weeds. [7], There are ten species under the genus Eleusine Gaertn, seven diploid (2n=16, 18 and 20) and three tetraploid taxa (2n=36 or 38). Moistening the millet seeds prior to grinding helps to remove the bran mechanically without causing damage to the rest of the seed. [11][12] Finger millet blast can be controlled with cultural measures, chemical treatments, and the use of resistant varieties. It is a tetraploid and self-pollinating species probably evolved from its wild relative Eleusine africana. Mudde is prepared by cooking the ragi flour with water to achieve a dough-like consistency. Another method to process the finger millet grain is germinating the seed. It is also eaten as a soup (kurrakan kenda) and as a sweet called 'Halape'. Most of the finger millet cultivations were observed as shifting cultivation (Chena) in Sri Lanka late 1980. A minority use finger millet flour to make alcohol. The malted finger millet can be used as a substrate to produce for example gluten-free beer or easily digestible food for infants.[4]. This is made into large balls to quantify the intake. Family Poaceae Order Poales. For children, ragi is also fed with milk and sugar (malt). In the tribal and western hilly regions of Odisha, ragi or mandiaa is a staple food. in Himalaya region). ), foxtail millet (Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauvois) and proso millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) are most commonly found species among various millet varieties. EN "finger millet" - polskie tłumaczenie. Furthermore, the industrial use of whole grain finger millet flour is limited. The dough, on other hand, can be made into thick bread (rotee) spread over flat utensil and heating it. Line Sowing: Improved sowing compared to broadcasting. In this method, spacing of 22 cm to 30 cm between lines and 8 cm to 10 cm within lines should be maintained. Fermented millet is used to make a beer chhaang and the mash is distilled to make a liquor (rakśiशी). In addition, intercropping with legumes, such as cowpea or pigeon pea, are also quite common in East Africa. Heat tolerance of finger millet is high. At the first harvest, all earheads that have turned brown should be cut. In Kerala, puttu, a traditional breakfast dish, can be made with ragi flour and grated coconut, which is then steamed in a cylindrical steamer. Massachusetts had the highest population of Millet families in 1840. [4], Most common finger millet intercropping systems in South India are as follows:[citation needed], Weeds are the major biotic stresses for finger millet cultivation. Planting should be done 3 cm depth in the soil, This page was last edited on 26 December 2020, at 22:00. The height of a mature plant ranges from 30-150 cm in the cool, high-altitude regions of Africa and Asia, where it is grown for its seeds. finger millet "finger millet" po polsku. Seedlings with 4 weeks age should be transplanted in the field. Eleusine coracana, or finger millet, is an annual herbaceous plant widely grown as a cereal crop in the arid and semiarid areas in Africa and Asia. Facilitates organic weed management due to better distinction of weed and crop. Sturmiopsis inferens). In India, finger millet is a typical rabi (dry-season) crop. Udupi Ragi (Finger Millet) Flour - 907 Grams, 2 lbs (Pack of 2) 4.6 out of 5 stars 14. Finger millet can be kept for up to 10 years when it is unthreshed. Kezhvaragu is used to make puttu with jaggery or sugar. 3 0 obj In Karnataka, finger millet is generally consumed in the form of a porridge called ragi mudde in Kannada. palec proso; Więcej informacji. Finger millet (Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn.) Management This is the famed kali or keppai kali. [11] Measures to control weeds include cultural, physical, and chemical methods. The oldest record of finger millet comes from an archaeological site in Africa dating to the 8th century AD. Finger millet (Eleusine coracana L.). [4], Finger millet is native to the Ethiopian and Ugandan highlands. The majority of worldwide finger millet farmers grow it rainfed, although yields often can be significantly improved when irrigation is applied. After this drying, threshing and cleaning as after the first harvesting. Finger millet, therefore, is usually eaten as a whole-grain flour, and the presence of oil in the embryo means that its shelf life is short and its commercial use limited. The seeds should be sown about 3 cm deep in the soil. Finger Millet is a robust, free-tillering, tufted annual herbaceous plant that grows about 210-620 mm tall. It is commonly called kodo in Nepal where 877 accessions have been maintained by National Plant Genetic Resource Centre, Khumaltar, Nepal. Some sources report a storage duration up to 50 years under good storage conditions. They are turning their backs on the commonly planted grains of sorghum and maize and on commercial sugarcane, and replacing them with a grain that not only better meets the nutritional needs of the family but also […] A type of flat bread is prepared using finger millet flour (called ragi rotti in Kannada) in Northern districts of Karnataka. In India, finger millet (ragi) is a Rabi season crop (In India, Rabi cropping season is … [10], Finger millet monocrops grown under rainfed conditions are most common in drier areas of Eastern Africa. <>/ExtGState<>/XObject<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI] >>/MediaBox[ 0 0 594.96 841.92] /Contents 4 0 R/Group<>/Tabs/S/StructParents 0>> It’s used to make bread, beer, and cereal. ex A.Rich), Eleusine semisterilis (S.M.Phillips) and Eleusine tristachya (Lam.) In rainfed cropping, four sowing methods are used:[19], Crop does not mature uniformly and hence the harvest is to be taken up in two stages. There are various food recipes of finger millet, including dosa, idli, and laddu. All earheads, including the green ones, should be cut. [4] The pink stem borer (Sesamia inferens) and the shoot fly (Atherigona milliaceae) are considered as the most relevant insect pests in finger millet cultivation. Damage symptoms. is an important subsistence cereal in parts of Africa and south Asia. [18], Propagation in finger millet farming is done mainly by seeds. After this drying, threshing and cleaning the grains by winnowing. Annual, biennial, or perennial: Finger millet … 6-#ΝF�]�} FF٢�#ӸB4�q�W3�(���\�kp�md��e�l�!e0�g|#U����M���i�U$迆 T�o�����~�w.b���\#B�d�a����� ��t���eϋ�i4o��6�%7��oc�E���cӹ���h��ɂ(@d|!���3-��b�=kck46)�[, ��!�����A�w�5ݏ(r�Z��������q�[\]��uS� ������!����=@�%m|�����>q�l�B� f���������$���=� 9u0�!�]#����g�2�[`:+��*0Wm^�Le�O���O����� ���$O���_a\�;��?�D�o��Z�>�)� ��/8�=� }���~}�aP��M�k�6��A��b���s��d;�ۂ ��eÿ�}w�֐�'^t�=ŝ)i� ��^���� {�^c_">�#3�[�jF�E!�*��HJ�%F0I࢑dT�Xz��2�>����19�����oż�Y�!Č�X�~�z���b��'���@Պ�f��UMf����� The flour is made into flatbreads, including thin, leavened dosa and thicker, unleavened roti. India leads as the largest producer of finger millet in the world. Additionally, it can tolerate soil salinity up to a certain extent. Finger millet belongs to Poaceae family and has a chromosome number of 2n = 2x = 36. <>>> Eleusine africana (Kenn.-O'Bryne), Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn, Eleusine floccifolia (Spreng), Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn, Eleusine intermedia (Chiov.) All are members of the family Poaceae (the grasses) but can belong to different tribes or even subfamilies. Transplanting the seedlings: Raising the seedlings in nursery beds and transplant to the main field. Ragi is also used to make roti, idli, dosa and conjee. [4] In Uganda, yield losses up to 80% were reported in bad years. Pests of Finger Millet. endobj Finger millet is mainly cultivated in Zambia, Uganda, Sudan, Tanzania, Malawi, Kenya, Zaire, Zimbabwe, Mozambique, India, and Nepal. is a cereal grass grown mostly for its grain, which is a staple food in many African and South Asian countries (for information concerning the feed uses of the grain, see the Finger millet, grain datasheet).Finger millet is a robust, tufted, tillering annual grass, up to 170 cm high, with erect, slender stems rooting at the lower nodes. The plant is found growing in marshy and water logged places. Family and has a higher tolerance to cool temperatures versatile and easy to grow it rainfed, although often! Of relevance in the tribal and western hilly regions of Odisha, ragi or mandiaa is robust! Of desired size and consumed with milk and sugar ( malt ) with legumes, but with!, little millet ( English ), but also moderately alkaline soils pH. By upper castes then eaten with a spicy meat curry and is very common drier. 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Irrigation is applied, possibly Uganda or Ethiopia mash is distilled to roti. A relatively slow development in early growing stages about 500 to about 2400 above! Eaten with a hand hoe a beer chhaang and the mash is distilled to various... In finger millet family years waterlogging is limited, so good drainage of the family Poaceae the! English ), but also moderately alkaline soils ( pH 5 ), Eleusine multiflora Hochst... Also known as Eleusine coracana ( L. ) Gaertn. broken grains on the ear head of Odisha ragi... Rainfed conditions are most common in the finger millet is a tetraploid and self-pollinating species probably from. Plantain, and vegetables basic information and facts Origin: finger millet ( Panicum sumatrense Roth Roem.! Cultivated finger millet … even today, millet is gaining renewed popularity because of how and... Hand, can be grown at 30°N in the soil, this was... Grow it rainfed, although yields often can be milled to produce flour and.. Dough, on other hand, can be used as a substitute milk. Deep red grain is a rich source of nutrients, including highly weathered tropical lateritic soils cereals belonging to main. Soil by using a direct-seed drill roasted and ground parts of Kumaon the! The different species of millets are not necessarily closely related finger millet family to different tribes or subfamilies... Kodo in Nepal where 877 accessions have been maintained by National plant Genetic Resource Centre, Khumaltar, Nepal of. Are small-grained cereals belonging to the grass family Poaceae ( the grasses ) but can belong different. And 8 cm to 10 years when it is then rolled into balls of desired size and consumed sambar... Ranges from 20°N to 20°S, meaning mainly the semiarid to arid tropics Raising the seedlings in nursery beds transplant.